source: Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences
Burlina AB,Gragnaniello V
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), a lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of α-L-iduronidase, leads to storage of the glycosaminoglycans, dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate. Available therapies include enzyme replacement and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In the last two decades, newborn screening (NBS) has focused on early identification of the disorder, allowing early intervention and avoiding irreversible manifestations. Techniques developed and optimized for MPS I NBS include tandem mass-spectrometry, digital microfluidics, and glycosaminoglycan quantification. Several pilot studies have been conducted and screening programs have been implemented worldwide. NBS for MPS I has been established in Taiwan, the United States, Brazil, Mexico, and several European countries. All these programs measure α-L-iduronidase enzyme activity in dried blood spots, although there are differences in the analytical strategies employed. Screening algorithms based on published studies are discussed. However, some limitations remain: one is the high rate of false-positive results due to frequent pseudodeficiency alleles, which has been partially solved using post-analytical tools and second-tier tests; another involves the management of infants with late-onset forms or variants of uncertain significance. Nonetheless, the risk-benefit ratio is favorable. Furthermore, long-term follow-up of patients detected by neonatal screening will improve our knowledge of the natural history of the disease and inform better management.
Division of Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Department of Diagnostic Services, University Hospital, Padua, Italy.
10.1080/10408363.2021.2021846 read more