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Loss of Function of Mutant IDS Due to Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation: New Therapeutic Opportunities for Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II
source: International journal of molecular sciences
authors: Matsuhisa K,Imaizumi Ksummary/abstract:
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) results from the dysfunction of a lysosomal enzyme, iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS). Dysfunction of IDS triggers the lysosomal accumulation of its substrates, glycosaminoglycans, leading to mental retardation and systemic symptoms including skeletal deformities and valvular heart disease. Most patients with severe types of MPS II die before the age of 20. The administration of recombinant IDS and transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells are performed as therapies for MPS II. However, these therapies either cannot improve functions of the central nervous system or cause severe side effects, respectively. To date, 729 pathogenetic variants in the gene have been reported. Most of these potentially cause misfolding of the encoded IDS protein. The misfolded IDS mutants accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), followed by degradation via ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Inhibition of the ERAD pathway or refolding of IDS mutants by a molecular chaperone enables recovery of the lysosomal localization and enzyme activity of IDS mutants. In this review, we explain the IDS structure and mechanism of activation, and current findings about the mechanism of degradation-dependent loss of function caused by pathogenetic IDS mutation. We also provide a potential therapeutic approach for MPS II based on this loss-of-function mechanism.organization: Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8553, Japan.
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