source: International journal of molecular sciences
The accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in bone and cartilage leads to progressive damage in cartilage that, in turn, reduces bone growth by the destruction of the growth plate, incomplete ossification, and growth imbalance. The mechanisms of pathophysiology related to bone metabolism in mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) include impaired chondrocyte function and the failure of endochondral ossification, which leads to the release of inflammatory cytokines via the activation of Toll-like receptors by GAGs. Although improvements in the daily living of patients with MPS have been achieved with enzyme replacement, treatment for the bone disorder is limited. There is an increasing need to identify biomarkers related to bone and cartilage to evaluate the progressive status and to monitor the treatment of MPS. Recently, new analysis methods, such as proteomic analysis, have identified new biomarkers in MPS. This review summarizes advances in clinical bone metabolism and bone biomarkers.
Department of Pediatrics, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, 1-5-54 Ujina-Kanda, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan.
10.3390/ijms222312651 read more